Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal en-US <div class="paragraph">Publishing paper with&nbsp;<strong><em>Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature</em></strong> means that the author or authors retain the copyright in the paper.</div> <div class="paragraph">This journal is granted an exclusive non commercial reuse license by the author(s), but the author(s) are able to put the paper onto a website, distribute it to colleagues, give it to students, use it in your thesis etc, so long as the use is not directed at commercial advantage or toward private monetary gain.</div> <div class="paragraph">The author(s) can reuse the figures and tables and other information contained in their paper published by <strong><em>Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature</em></strong> in future papers or work without having to ask anyone for permission, provided that the figures, tables or other information that is included in the new paper or work properly references the published paper as the source of the figures, tables or other information, and the new paper or work is not direct at private monetary gain or commercial advantage.</div> support@i-proclaim.my (i-Proclaim) support@i-proclaim.my (i-Proclaim) Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Translation into English of Khalil I. Al-Fuzai’s1 “Reaching the End”2 http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/474 <p>A youth cannot marry his cousin because her father refuses for economic reasons.&nbsp; This story shows how the Saudi Arabian society connects marriage with wealth, even when it comes to relatives who are obligated culturally to take care of one another.&nbsp; A father is ready to sacrifice his daughter for a rich person, hoping that marriage bargain will improve his economic status.&nbsp; The customs of the society validate that a father can do to his daughter what he sees as good. Also, the norms of the society require a younger relative to obey an older one, even working for him; a person cannot fight back or challenge an elder.&nbsp; Accordingly, the relation between relatives is a relation of traditional and cultural power recognized and imposed by the society.</p> <p>In this story, the protagonist is colonized physically and mentally: in addition to having been exploited for fifteen years, he believes that his life is secured with his uncle.&nbsp; And hence, “he almost lost his personal independence,” as the story states.&nbsp; He can lose anything as long as his future is granted, for he believes that he is the only heir of his uncle.&nbsp; But after his uncle’s refusal of his proposal, he becomes aware of being marginalized and colonized.&nbsp; He has to struggle and search for his identity after being considered as “a nobody in the world of the living.”&nbsp; Like the protagonist who kills his father in the previous story, the youth of this story “deludes himself that he is brave and that he has to prove it.”</p> <p>Yet as an oppressed and marginalized person, the main character is neither supposed nor expected to practice oppression.&nbsp; But he thinks of violating his uncle’s daughter’s honor—for no fault except that she is his uncle’s daughter.&nbsp; In a culture that valorizes masculine values, the wretched girl becomes the victim of both her father, who wants to sell her as a commodity for the one who pays more, and of her cousin, who wants to exploit her in order to achieve his goals. Finally, in my translation, some well-known words are kept with their original pronunciation and written in italics to keep the reader aware of the Arabic text.<sup>3</sup></p> Gassim H. Dohal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/474 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Victimization of Facebook Users: An Empirical Study among Female Students in Tangail http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/532 <p>Social networking site is an important area of research. It is a known fact that young adults and teenagers, especially students are the most avid users of online Social networking sites which have a great impact on their lives. Yet, little is known about the sardonic experiences of students in social networking sites. With approximate 22.880 million users Facebook holds its number one popularity rank. Therefore, this paper takes Facebook as commissar of these Social Networking sites and focuses to provide an insight on the victimization of Female student and tends to explore the current nature and causes of female Facebook victimization. Female students are opted because they are more vulnerable in these sites than male. This paper reports the findings of a research work that was carried out in the higher secondary educational institutions in Tangail by using a non-probability purposive sample of 15 to 26 years aged female students. 70 samples were collected through a structured questionnaire and the gleaned data was analyzed by using SPSS. This study demonstrates, although social networking site have opened up a new way of socialization, respondents had experienced several types of cyber crime in Facebok. Such experiences create a state of insecurity, depression, fear, isolation and to a very large extent suicide. It is relatively a new phenomenon and hopefully both the effective technical strategy along with public consciousness used as a useful tool to reduce female vulnerability in Facebook from individual to national level in Babgladesh.</p> Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Mahmuda Akter, Saikat Alam Santona ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/532 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Women Participation in Leadership Position: The Case of Debre Markos City Administration http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/535 <p>Women face multi –faceted challenges to participate in management position due to different factors. The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that affect participation of women in leadership&nbsp;&nbsp; position. . And for ward some possible suggestion for the challenges identified through this study. The study was descriptive in nature and survey solving method was used in data gathering. Data used in this research was mainly primary and secondary data as well, quantitative and qualitative types was incorporated. The data was collected by interviewing and conducting questionnaires. The study revealed that the current status of women participation was low in number in city administration and there are different factors that affect women’s participation in leadership position. The factors which contribute for women's low participation in leadership positions were categorized under three main factors: societal, institutional (organizational) and individual factors. It was observed those women’s career advancements are not affected by one factor alone but a combination of different factors.&nbsp; From these factors the research found that three factors (institutional socio culture and individual) have decisive contribution for low participation of women in leader ship position. According to the respondents, there are institutional (organizational), socio culture and individual factors that have major contribution to the low representation of women in the leadership positions of governmental organization respectively by proper implementation of&nbsp; women policies in the organization, equal treatment during assignment leadership position, providing training to build women’s capacity and creating awareness to the society that women capable for leadership position the researcher recommends that women should be encouraged and supported in order to compete on leadership positions.</p> Genet Bekele Yemenu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/535 Fri, 17 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Adoption of Agricultural Marketing Technologies by Farmers of Northern Bangladesh: A Binary Logistic Analysis to Determine the Factors Influencing Farmers' Decision http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/547 <p>Low adoption of agricultural marketing technologies in the field of agricultural commodities marketing is one of the main reasons for profit loss of the farmers in Bangladesh. This paper examines the factors that influence farmers' decision of modern agricultural marketing technologies adoption in Northern Bangladesh. By using questionnaire survey the researcher collect data from 216 farmers in Dinajpur and Naogaon district in Northern Bangladesh and the binary logistic regression model was estimated to find out the factors influence farmers decision. Seven independent variables i.e. age of the farmer, formal education of the farmer, farm size, level of expected benefits, off-farm income generating activities, access to institutional credit and training about use of marketing technologies are statistically significant factors that influence the decision of farmers to adopt modern agricultural marketing technologies in Northern Bangladesh. So it is concluded that the farmers' decision to adopt modern agricultural marketing technologies depends on their socio-economic status and organizational effectiveness. We recommend that such policies should be made so that the positive impact factors on technologies adoption are properly utilized and negative issues are reduced.</p> Md. Ziaul Haque ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/547 Tue, 11 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Acquiring Scientific and Technological Proficiency: State of Science Education in Bangladesh http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/548 <p>Developing scientific values in students’ mind is the goal of science teaching. Bangladesh, of late, has adopted various strategies to educate the people and mainly the children. There are still many challenges for the country to attain an acceptable standard of education. Science education here in Bangladesh is in a state of crisis. The enrolment for science studies in the country shows a sharp decline over the past few years. This discipline, what once used to be the most sought after subject at secondary, higher secondary and tertiary levels in the country, is losing its appeal in an alarming shift of choice. Indeed it is important know what the obstacles are and how they are removed within a stipulated short period. This paper aims to present the current situation of Bangladesh in terms of science and technological development in the education sector. There is no alternative of a scientifically and technologically literate workforce as the future economy will also be science i.e. ICT based.</p> Sabina Yeasmin, Md. Dulal Mahmud ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://i-proclaim.my/archive/index.php/ajhal/article/view/548 Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000