Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment i-Proclaim en-US Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment 2312-2005 ‘Wasteaware’ Indicators: an Assessment of the Current Solid Waste Management System in Lahore, Pakistan <p>The present status of solid waste management reviewed into this article based in Lahore, Pakistan. Following UN-Habitat city profiling with involved systematic quantitative, qualitative assessment, governance features of the present waste management includes in and shows the present system, waste collection, transportation is the main concentration and producing 74,000 tons year-1 of organic compost. Lahore waste management system (LWMC) is low in their target market consulted in decision making (inclusivity) and bad performance (governance features). Formal waste management system having backward of the informal system, which is absolutely inconsistent with current waste management systems. Watchful arranging and organization proposed here to reduce the trouble by integrating informal waste management system into formal waste management system for shared advantages. The integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) indicators used for different levels of income class and LWMC performance in Lahore. Recommendation builds for the public awareness for recycling and to make the integrating informal sector sustainable system and fill the historical data gap.</p> Inam Ullah Khan Wasif Ali Waseer Sami Ullah Shakeel Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-03 2018-07-03 5 2 49 58 10.18034/apjee.v5i2.525 Tracking Intrinsic Properties of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Grown by Spin Coating Technique at Ambient Temperature <p>Methyl ammonium lead iodide has become a burgeoning class of hybrid halide perovskites of solution-processed semiconductors. Advancements in its processing and characterization underscore structural, optical, and electronic properties. They have led to the development of perovskite solar cells, photo detectors, lasers, and photo diodes with power conversion efficiencies mature to be classified as first and second-generation technologies. Characterizing forms an integral understanding the operating principles and fundamental limitations for optoelectronics applications. Studies outlined in this paper covers CH3NH3PbI3 using time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, spectrophotometry and other measurements. Thus this investigatiosn may serve as principle tool in analyzing excited state decay kinetics and optical nonlinearities in CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. It is demonstrated herein that non-resonant photoexcitation yields a large fraction of free carriers on a sub-picosecond time scale. If applied in practical optoelectronic applications then any photogenerated carriers may travel long carrier lengths before they are extracted to realize large external quantum efficiencies and efficient charge extraction. The optical constants of CH3NH3PbI3 are interpreted using ab initio calculations through models. Findings show good agreement between the optical constants derived from QSGW and those from related literature. Transition from the highest valence band (VB) to the lowest conduction band (CB) was found to be responsible for almost all the optical responses between 1.2 and 5.5 eV. It was concluded that optical constants and energy band diagrams of CH3NH3PbI3 can be used to simulate the contributions from different optical transitions to a typical transient absorption spectrum for many optoelectronic applications.</p> Cliff Orori Mosiori John Maera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 5 2 59 68 10.18034/apjee.v5i2.526 Using Markov Analysis to Study the Impact of Temperature in Bangladesh <p>In this paper has been studied the temperature trend in Bangladesh. Long-term changes of surface air temperature over Bangladesh have been studied using the available historical data collected by the Bangladesh meteorological Department (BMD). Daily temperature data is collected from BMD in Dhaka and Chittagong. Then month have been divided according to season and their descriptive statistics are computed. Maximum average temperature in pre-monsoon season and minimum average temperature in winter season have been shown in the paper. This study also reveals that temperature has increased over the time. Markov chain analysis has been applied for these data so as to find the stationary probability. After 26 and 13 days stationary probabilities in Dhaka and Chittagong stations respectively have observed.</p> Janardan Mahanta Soumen Kishor Nath Md. Haronur Rashid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 5 2 69 76 10.18034/apjee.v5i2.527 Sources of Environmental Hazards Effects and Control <p>The entire world become village and whatever affects a country will ultimately affect the neighbouring ones.&nbsp; Since the environment is being constantly polluted by man through its various activities such an acts constitutes hazard to man and its ecological being and a threat to public health. An environmental hazard is a substance, state or event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment and / or adversely affect people's health. This term incorporates topics like pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes. Human-made hazards while not immediately health-threatening may turn out detrimental to man's well-being eventually, because deterioration in the environment can produce secondary, unwanted negative effects on the human ecosphere. The effects of water pollution may not be immediately visible because of a sewage system that helps drain off toxic substances. If those substances turn out to be persistent (e.g. persistent organic pollutant), however, they will literally be fed back to their producers via the food chain: plankton -&gt; edible fish -&gt; humans. In that respect, a considerable number of environmental hazards are man-made (anthropogenic) hazards. This necessitate to this study of investigating, the sources, effects and controls of environment hazards. Data were gathered from Primary Health Care (P.H.C) department and from environment department through oral interview method. The findings from the data collected revealed that’s the people in the study area have negative attitude towards environmental hazards which make them to mismanage environmental resources such as land, water and air. Investigation also shows that, there were poor and inadequate system of refuse disposition and that the system most of the houses in the area are without adequate toilet facilities. Health education should be given to the people on the sources and effects of environmental hazards. It is therefore hoped that, if the recommendation made in this study is staffs strictly adhered to, it would go a long way in improving the environmental condition.</p> Abdulraheem Mukhtar Iderawumi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 5 2 77 82 10.18034/apjee.v5i2.528 Impact the Temperature of Bangladesh: An Application of Markov Model <p>Markov chain model has been used to analyze the temperature of Bangladesh. Different order Markov chain model has constructed and their significance has been tested. Using Cramer’s , strength the association of temperature with the order of Markov chain has been measured. Stationary probability has been calculated, and there have been employed whether the temperature is stationary or not.</p> Janardan Mahanta Syed Tanjim Hossain Imtiaz Reza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 5 2 83 90 10.18034/apjee.v5i2.529 Performance Evaluation of Single Slope Solar Still by Integrating with Solar Thermal Systems <p>The world is facing the state of being scarce of fresh or drinking water and it is the major problem and global challenge. Along with air and food, water is a basic necessity for human. Solar energy is the biggest source of energy available on earth. A solar distillation is one of the methods for purifying salt water to drinking water. In this method fresh water is obtained by exposing a small layer of salt water to solar radiation and the water vaporized from the basin is condensed on the bottom side of a taper transparent cover. It can be collected in receiving troughs at the end of the still. For this research, a solar still has been designed, fabricated and tested under the climate condition of Coimbatore (11.01680 N, 76.9550 E), India from December 2016 to March 2017. The still basin area was 1m2 and the glass cover of still is inclined at 13 degree based on the city latitude. Solar still is integrated with thermal system such as solar photovoltaic system and then with solar pond in order to preheat the feed water thereby increasing the productivity considerably. Experiments were carried out on the still using different parameters and tested for performance. The results showed that the daily production of the conventional solar still was 2 Lit/m2/day and integrated with photovoltaic system and solar pond was 3.1 Lit/m2/day and 2.54 Lit/m2/day respectively.</p> R. Sivakumaran P. Jdihesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 5 2 91 102 10.18034/apjee.v5i2.530 A Parametric Study Of Window, Orientation And Shading to Minimize Energy Consuption in Mechanically Ventilated High Rise Office Buildings in Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>Vital statistics of a building, meaning geometric attributes, are very important design tool to manipulate energy performance of a building which is often neglected. Though a lot of recent researches focused on increasing capabilities of material and technology to build energy efficient buildings, design elements such as form, shape, window, orientation, etc. can play a very important and effective role to increase energy efficiency. The strategic design decisions about geometric attributes in the design phase costs almost nothing and can save energy bills through lifetime of the building, which is yet be specified in particular climatic region and particular building types where energy consumption matters in national scale. This paper investigates the critical proportion of façade glazing through parametric study by simulation to obtain optimum balance between luminous and thermal behavior as well as energy consumption. The context of the study is Dhaka, with tropical monsoon climate where heat and humidity is a big concern. The experiment is carried out and hence relevant to highrise office building due to its large vertical surface compared to insignificant roof area. The outcomes indicate that significant harvesting of daylight and reduction of total energy consumption by 50% comes with proper shading on large glazing on East and West facade; and 30% on South facade.</p> Md Shajjad Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 5 2 103 114 10.18034/apjee.v5i2.531