Do the Slum Dwellers Enjoy the Basic Constitutional and Economic Rights as a Citizen in Bangladesh?
Bangladesh is a country of about 156million people including nearly 7.81 million of slum people. This paper investigates 28 years data for 1986- 2014 periods on the living standard of slum dwellers of Bangladesh. It presents the different forms of deprivations, sufferings and miseries of slum people from basic needs including social, constitutional and economic rights. More specifically, the wretchedness of slum dwellers in housing, drinking water, sanitation, food intake, healthcare, education, employment, income patterns, social status and security, economic and public assistance has been explored in this paper. In addition, poverty scenario and services of social organization among slum people has been focused in this paper. Finally, it recommends some policies to improve the living conditions of slum dwellers in Bangladesh.
JEL Classification Code: I31, I38, I13, I18, I25, E26, O18, O15, O17
Akter, Tahera, (2010), Migration and living conditions in urban slums: implications for food security, published by Unnayan Onneshan, Dhaka, Bangladesh Web: www.unnayan.org, http://www.unnayan.org/reports/Migration.and.living.conditions.in.urban.slums.pdf
Alam, Md. Zahanggir; Rahman, Md. Alinur; Firoz, Md. Abdullah Al (2013), Water Supply and Sanitation Facilities in Urban Slums: A Case Study of Rajshahi City Corporation Slums, American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1-6
Alamgir, M. S., M. A. Jabbar and M. S. Islam (2009),Assessing the Livelihood of Slum Dwellersâ€™ in Dhaka city, Journal of. Bangladesh Agricultural University. Volume 7, Issue 2, pp.: 373â€“380,
Anam, Shaheen (1993), staying alive: urban poor in Bangladesh, UNICEF, pp. 13
Baker, J.L. (2007), Dhaka: improving living conditions for the urban poor. World Bank
BBS (1988), Report on the slum area census 1986, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, pp. 4, Dhaka, Bangladesh,
BBS (1999), Census of slum areas and Floating Population 1997, Volume-1, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, pp. 2, Dhaka, Bangladesh
BBS (2005, 2010), Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2005 and 2010, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Dhaka, Bangladesh
BBS (2011), Bangladesh Population and Housing Census 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Dhaka, Bangladesh, retrieved from:http://www.bbs.gov.bd/Home.aspx#
Cameron, Stuart (2009), Education in slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, Paper prepared for the 10th UKFIET International Conference on Education and Development, 2009
Cameron, Stuart (2010), Access to and Exclusion from Primary Education in Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh
CEDAR Barefoot Walk&SATHI, (2011), Hope for Urban Slum Dwellers in Bangladesh, CEDAR Barefoot Walk&SATHI. Retrieved from: http://cedarbarefootwalk.wordpress.com/2011/09/30/hope-for-urban-slum-dwellers-in-bangladesh/
CUS (2006), Slum of urban Bangladesh, Mapping and Census, 2005, Centre for Urban Studies (CUS), Dhaka, Bangladesh
DSK Website (2012), Working Area, Dushtha Shasthya Kendra, DSK, Website: www.dskbangladesh.org, (Accessed on 24.12.2012)
GOB (2013), Bangladesh Economic Review 2013, Ministry of Finance, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka, retrieved from: http://mof.gov.bd/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=72&Itemid=1
GOB, (1972), The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, PART II, fundamental principles of state policy, PART III, fundamental Rights. Government of Bangladesh, accessed from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN014593.pdf
Hanchett, Suzanne; Akhter, Shireen; Khan, Mohidul Hoque; Mezulianik, Stephen and Vicky, Blagbrough (2003), Water, sanitation and hygiene in Bangladeshi slums: an evaluation of the Water Aidâ€“ Bangladesh urban programme, International Institute for Environment and Development, Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com
Hora EA. 2014. Factors that affect Women Participation in Leadership and Decision Making Position Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature, 1, 97-117.
Hossain, Basharat (2011), Slum of Bangladesh: An Overview, retrieved from: http://economicsbd.wordpress.com/2011/03/06/a-brief-history-of-economics/
Hossain, Basharat (2014); Poverty Reduction during 1971-2013 Periods: Success and its Recent Trends in Bangladesh, Global Journal of Human-Social Science: E-Economics, Volume 14 Issue 5 (Ver. 1.0).pp.39-47
Hossain, Shahadat (2011), Urban Poverty in Bangladesh: Slum Communities, Migration and Social Integration, I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, London
Hussain DB, Chaudhry DW and Askar A. 2012. From Providing â€˜Alternative Punishmentâ€™ to Offering â€˜Punishment in the Communityâ€™: The History and Development of Community Penalties in Britain ABC Journal of Advanced Research, 1, 15-22.
IFPRI (2007), Study of Household Food Security in Urban Slum Areas of Bangladesh, 2006,published by International Food Policy Research Institute, Final Report for World Food Programâ€“ Bangladesh, Washington, D.C.USA
IOM (2007), Discussion Note: Migration and the Environment. MC/INF/2008, International Organization for Migration
IOM- Mahajan, D. (2010). No Landâ€™s Man: Migration in a Changing Climate. In, On the Move: Migration Challenges in the Indian Ocean Littoral, E. Laipson and A. Pandya (Eds.), The Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington DC
Islam, Atikul (2012), Crimes at the Urban Slum: A sociological study on the crimes committed at Mohammadpur Geneva Camp, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp.9-25, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing
Islam, M S; Kurshed, AAM; Azad, TMAand Bhuyan, M A H;(2012), Changing Patterns in Lifestyle, Food Intake and Health Status between Selected Beneficiary People and Non-beneficiary People of Urban Slum in Dhaka City, Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 24-25 , Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
Islam, Nazrul;Mahbub, Dr. AQM and Nazem, Dr. Nurul Islam(2009); urban slums of Bangladesh, the Daily star, Published On: 2009-06-20. Retrieved from: http://www.thedailystar.net/story.php?nid=93293
Lashari NA and Mohyuddin DA. 2012. Economic Activities among Barra Community in Sindh, Pakistan: A Case study of Matli Town, District Badin ABC Journal of Advanced Research, 1, 23-31.
Mitiku W, Alemu Y and Mengsitu S. 2014. Challenges and Opportunities to Implement Inclusive Education Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature, 1, 118-135.
Parvin, G. A. and Shaw, R. (2011), Climate Disaster Resilience of Dhaka City Corporation:An Empirical Assessment at Zone Level, Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, 2(2),Art.6
Rahman MS and Islam MS. 2012. An Analytical Study on Determining Effective Factors for Recruiting Right Person ABC Journal of Advanced Research, 1, 50-56.
Rashid, Sabina Faiz (2004), worried lives: poverty, gender and reproductive health of married adolescent women living in an urban slum in Bangladesh. Doctoral, Australian National University, July
Roshan KM. 2014. Contextualizing Power Politics of Tamasha Art and Female Suffering in Dalit Autobiography Asian Journal of Humanity, Art and Literature, 1, 77-83.
Sharifa, Begum and Sen, Binayak (2004), Unsustainable Livelihoods, Health Shocks and Urban Chronic Poverty Rickshaw Pullers as a Case Study, Mimio, Chronic Poverty Research Centre and Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Rumana, Nahid; Shahana, Nahid (2007), Dietary Pattern and Food Intake Habit of the Underprivileged Children Residing in the Urban Slums, Iran J Pediatr, Vol 17 ,No 3;227-234
Uddin,Muhammed Kamal (2002), needs for land and agrarian reform in Bangladesh, Paper presented in the Regional Workshop on Land Issues for Asia held on 4-6, June 2002, in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
UN-HABITAT (2005), Slum trends in Asia,UN-HABITAT Global Urban Observatory 2005, pp.2-3
UNICEF, (2010),Understanding Urban Inequalities in Bangladesh: A prerequisite for achieving Vision 2021, a study based on the results of the 2009 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, United Nations Childrenâ€™s Fund (UNICEF), Bangladesh.
United Nation (2012), World Population Prospects: 2012 revision, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, United Nations
Copyright (c) 2016 Basharat Hossain
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.