You Are What You Consume

  • Jubayer Ahmed Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, City University, Ahuliya, Savar, Dhaka, BANGLADESH
Keywords: Consumer, Brand, Product, Self-concept and image


The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of individual’s self-concept in consumption pattern. Consumers intentionally or unintentionally consume different products and services during their lifetime and their consumption pattern or preferences are closely associated with their sense of self.  Similarly, consumers tend to avoid commodities or services that contradict with their self-image. A number of empirical studies have been analyzed further to investigate the influence of self- concept on brand or product selection.  





Download data is not yet available.


Aaker, J.L. (1999), “The malleable self: the role of self-expression in persuasionâ€, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 36 No. 1, February, pp. 45-57.

Abdurrouf, M.; Siddique, M. N. A. and Rahman,M.A.(2010) Good Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendations for Good Practices, Journal of Socioeconomic Research and Development, Volume 7 Issue 5(2010) pp. 970-974

Ahmed, J. and Rouf, M.A.(2015) Controlled, Uncontrolled Communication, Brand Name and Brand Attitude: A Relational Study on Cellular Telecom Sector of Bangladesh, American Journal of Trade and Policy, Volume 2, Number 1/2015 (Issue 4),Pp.15-22

Akhtaruddin, M. and Rouf,M.A.(2012)Corporate Governance, Cultural Factors and Voluntary Disclosure: Evidence from Selected Companies in Bangladeshâ€, Corporate Board: Role, Duties & Composition, Volume 8, Issue 1, 2012, pp.46-58

Al- Masud, T. (2015). Tourism Marketing in Bangladesh: What, Why and How. Asian Business Review, 5(1), 13-19.

Alam, N., & Rubel, A. (2014). Impacts of Corporate Social Responsibility on Customer Satisfaction in Telecom Industry of Bangladesh. ABC Journal Of Advanced Research, 3(2), 26-37.

Arnould, E.J. (1989), "Toward a broadened theory of preference formation and the diffusion of innovations: cases from Zinder Province Niger Republic", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 16 pp.239-67.

Baker, M., and Richard, G. (1982), “Trait Anxiety and Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiousness,†Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 21, 119-122.

Belk, R.W. (1988), "Possessions and the extended self", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 15 pp.39-168

Belk, R.W., Wallendorf, M., Sherry, J.F. (1989), "The sacred and profane in consumer behavior: theodicy on the odyssey", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 16 pp.1-35.

Bell, S. S., Holbrook, M. B. and Solomon, M. R. (1991) ‘Combining esthetic and social value to explain preferences for product styles with incorporation of personality and ensemble effects’, in ‘To Have Possessions: A Handbook on Ownership and Property’, Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 6 (6), 243–247.

Brewer, Marilynn B. and Wendi Gardner (1996), “Who Is This ‘We’? Levels of Collective Identity and Self Representations,†Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71 (July), 83–93.

Britt, S.H. (1960), Consumer Behaviour and the Behavioural Sciences: Theories and Applications, John Wiley, New York, NY.

Buda. R., Elsayed-Elkhouly, S.M. (1998), “Cultural differences between Arabs and Americansâ€,Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, Vol. 29 No. 3, pp319-35

Burn, R.B. (1979), The Self-Concept in Theory, Measurement, Development, and Behaviour, Longman, London

Chen, Cheng-Nan, Mengkuan Lai and David D.C. Tarn (1999), “Feminism orientation, product attributes and husband-wife decision dominance; a Taiwan-Japan cross cultural studyâ€, Journal of Global Marketing, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 23-39.

Chile, L., & Talukder, D. (2014). The Paradox of Agricultural Trade Liberalization in Bangladesh and Tanzania.American Journal Of Trade And Policy, 1(1), 23-31.

Chiou, Jyh-Shen (1999), “Investing the social-adjustment and value-expressive perceived ends in product purchasing decisionsâ€, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 87-109.

Chowdhury, A., Chowdhury, M., & Imran, M. (2015). Branding strategies for service firms- a study on the selected Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in Bangladesh. Asian Business Review, 2(1), 47-53.

Chowdhury, M., & Rahman, M. (2015). Consumer Attitude Towards the Cell Phone: A study on Young Generations of Chittagong Metropolitan City, Bangladesh. Asian Business Review, 3(3), 16-20.

Congleton, R. (1989), "Efficient status seeking: externalities, and the evolution of status games", Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 11 No.2, pp.175-90.

Cos¸gel, M. M. (1992) ‘‘Rhetoric in the economy: consumption and audience,’’ Journal of Socio-Economics 21: 363 – 377.

Cos¸gel, M. M. (1994) ‘‘Audience effects in consumption,’’ Economics and Philosophy 10:19 – 30

Crane, D. (2000) Fashion and its Social Agendas, London & Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Cutler, B. (1991), “Religion and marketing: important research area or a footnote in the literature?â€, Journal of Professional Services Marketing, Vol. 8 No. 1.

Delener, N. (1990), “The effects of religious factors on perceived risk in durable goods purchase decisionâ€, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 27-38

Dolfsma, W. (2004) Institutional Economics and the Formation of Preferences, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar

Douglas, M. and Isherwood, B. (1979) The World of Goods, New York: W. W. Norton.

Duesenberry, J.S. (1949), Income, Saving and the Theory of Consumer Behavior, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

Durkheim, Emile, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. London: Allen and Unwin, 1976.

Easterlin, R. (1995), "Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?", Journal of Economic Behavior and Organisation, Vol. 27 No.1, pp.35-47.

Elliott, R. and Wattanasuwan, K. (1998) ‘Brands as symbolic resources for the construction of identity’, International Journal of Advertising, 17(2), 131–145

Eriksen, M.K. (1996), “Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase intention: a European perspectiveâ€, Journal of Euro marketing, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 41-56.

Fatema, M., Azad, M., & Masum, A. (2015). Impact of Brand Image and Brand Loyalty in Measuring Brand Equity of Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd.. Asian Business Review, 2(1), 42-46.

Goffman E. 1959- The presentation of self in everyday life doubleday.

Grubb, E. and Grathwohl, H. (1967), “Consumer self-concept, symbolism, and market behaviour: a theoretical approachâ€, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31 No. 4, pp. 22-7.

Guthrie, S. (1980), “A Cognitive Theory of Religion,†Current Anthropology, 21

Habibulah, M.; Rouf, M.A. and Rana, M.(2012).Perception of Factors Affecting the Quality of Higher Education: A Study on Selected Private Universities in Bangladesh, International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol.4, No.2,Pp.1-12

Hamby, J. (1973), “Some Personality Correlates of Religious Orientationâ€, Dissertation Abstract International, Part A, Humanities and Social Sciences, 34, 1127-1128

Heath, A.P., Scott, D. (1998), "The self-concept and image congruence hypothesis: an empirical evaluation in the motor vehicle market", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 32 No.11, pp.1110-23.

Hill, R. (1992) ‘Transition in turmoil: When becoming an adult involves criminal behaviour’, Advances in Consumer Research, 19, 399–401.

Holt, D.B. (1998), "Does cultural capital structure American consumption?", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 25 pp.1-25.

Hossain, M. (2013). Leasing: An Alternative Financing Mechanism for SMEs. ABC Journal Of Advanced Research, 2(1), 66-82.

Huffman, C, Ratneshwar, S., & Mick, D.G. (2000) Consumer goal structures and goal-determination processes: An integrative framework, In Srinivasan Ratneshwar, David G. Mick, & Cynthia Huffman (Eds.), The why of consumption: Contemporary perspectives on consumer motives, goals, and desires (pp. 9–35). New York: Routledge.

Hwan Lee, D. (1990) ‘Symbolic interactionism: Some implications for consumer self concept and product symbolism research’, Advances in Consumer Research, 17,386–393.

James, William (1890), The Principles of Psychology, Vol. 1, New York: Henry Holt.

Joy, A. (2001), "Gift-giving in Hong Kong and the continuum of social ties", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 28 pp.239-56

Kahoe, R. (1971), “Personality and Innovation Proneness,†Journal of Marketing, 8

Kassarjian, H.H. (1971), “Personality and consumer behaviour: a reviewâ€, Journal of Marketing Reaearch, Vol. 8, November, pp. 409-18.

Khan, W. (2015). Leather Industry in Bangladesh: Opportunities and Challenges. American Journal Of Trade And Policy, 2(1), 31-38.

Lambert-Pandraud, R., Laurent, G., Lapersonne, E. (2005), "Repeat purchasing of new automobiles by older consumers: empirical evidence and interpretations", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69 No.2, pp.97-113.

Landon, L.E. Jr (1974), “Self concept, ideal self concept, and consumer purchase intentionsâ€, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 1, September, pp. 44-51.

Levy, Sidney J. (1959), “Symbols for Sale,†Harvard Business Review, 37 (July–August), 117–24

Ligas, M. and Cotte, J. (1999) ‘The process of negotiating brand meaning: A symbolic interactionist perspective’, Advances in Consumer Research, 26, 609–614.

Maria Piacentini, Greig Mailer (2004), "Symbolic consumption in teenagers' clothing choices", Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Vol.3, No. 3,

Markus, Hazel and Shinobu Kitayama (1991), “Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation,†Psychological Review, 98 (April), 224–53.

Mason, R. (1981) Conspicuous Consumption: A Study of Exceptional Consumer Behaviour, St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY.

McCraken, G. (1988) Culture and Consumption, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN

Miller, D. (1995) ‘‘Consumption as the Vanguard of History,’’ in D. Miller (ed.)Acknowledging Consumption, London & New York: Routledge: 1 – 57.

O’Cass, A. and Frost, H. (2002), “Status brands: examining the effects of non-product-related brand associations on status and conspicuous consumptionâ€, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 67-88.

O’Shaughnessy, J. (1992) Explaining Buyer Behaviour, Oxford University Press, New York, NY

Onkvisit, S. and Shaw, J. (1987), “Self-concept and image congruence: some research and managerial implicationâ€, The Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 4 No. 1.

Ozanne, J. L. (1992) ‘The role of consumption and disposition during classic rites of passage: The journey of birth, initiation and death’, Advances in Consumer Research, 19, 396–397.

Rauscher, M. (1993), "Demand for social status and the dynamics of consumer behaviour", The Journal of Socio-Economics, Vol. 22 No.2, pp.105-13.

Rouf, M.A. and Islam,M.A.(2015) An Opinion Survey of SME Banking Systems: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh†American Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Vol. 1, No. 3, 2015, pp. 112-118

Rouf, M.A.(2012) Ownership Structure, Audit Committee and Corporate Performance†The Cost and Management, Volume-XL, Number-5, September-October, 2012, Pp-40-45

Sack, D. (2001), Whitebread Protestants, Food and Religion in American Culture, Palgrave, New York, NY

Sherry, J.F. (1983), "Gift giving in anthropological perspective" Journal of Consumer Research,Vol.10 pp.157-68

Singh, P.N., Huang, S.C. and Thompson, G. (1962), “A comparative study of selected attitudes, values, and personality chracteristics if American, Chinese, Indian studentsâ€, Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 57, pp. 123-32

Sirgy, J.M. (1981), “Testing a self-concept model using a tangible productâ€, in Proceedings of the American Psychological Association – Consumer Psychology Division, Vol. 89, p. 17.

Sirgy, J.M. (1982), “Self-concept in consumer behaviour: a critical reviewâ€, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 9, December, pp. 287-300.

Spero, I. and Stone, M. (2004), “Agents of change: how young consumers are changing the world of marketingâ€, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 153-9.

Sturgeon, Robert S., and Roy W. Hamley (1979), “Religiosity and Anxiety,†The Journal of Social Psychology, 108, 137-138.

Tinne, W. (2015). Nation Branding: Beautiful Bangladesh. Asian Business Review, 2(1), 31-36.

Triandis, Harry C.(1989)“The Self and Behavior in Differing Cultural Contexts,†Psychological Review, 96, 506–20

Trigg, A. (2001), “Veblen, Bourdieu, and conspicuous consumptionâ€, Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 35 No. 1, pp. 99-115

Tuan, Yi-Fu ((1980), "The Significance of the Artifact," Geographical Review, 70 (4), 462-472.

Wallendorf, M., Arnould, E.J. (1988), "My favorite things: a cross-cultural inquiry into object attachment, possession and social linkage", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14 pp.531-47.

Wiebe, Ken F., and Ronald J. Fleck, “Personality Correlates of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and nonreligious Orientations,†The Journal of Psychology, 105 (1980), 181-187

Wong, N.Y., Ahuvia, A.C. (1998), "Personal taste and family face: luxury consumption in Confucian and Western societies", Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 15 No.5, pp.423-41.


How to Cite
Ahmed, J. (2015) “You Are What You Consume”, Global Disclosure of Economics and Business, 4(1), pp. 21-32. Available at: (Accessed: 20July2019).