Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Seed Rate and Sowing Method Effects on Seed Quality of Bread Wheat (triticum aestivum L.) Varieties in Horo District, Western Ethiopia

Tesfaye Geleta


Although wheat varieties were released with recommended seed rates, farmers usually apply their specific seed rates for various reasons. A study was conducted in Horo District to determine the effect of seeding rate and sowing methods on the seed quality of bread wheat using field and laboratory experiments, in the 2011 cropping season. The field experiment was conducted at Shambu, Bako agricultural research center sub-site while the seed quality analysis was performed at seed laboratory of Holetta Agricultural Research Center. The field experiment consisted of three factors in a factorial combination of two levels of variety (Molgo which is local and Digelu or HAR-3116 which is an improved one), two levels of sowing methods (broadcast and row) and four levels of seed rate (125, 150, 175 and 200 kg/ha) arranged in RCBD with three replications. Samples of harvested seed from those treatment combinations were subjected to seed quality analysis according to procedures described by ISTA 2003. The result of Seed quality analysis showed that physical purity, standard germination, the speed of germination, vigor index-I and II, and field emergence index were significantly affected by treatment effects. All these parameters were higher in Digelu than in Molgo at the lowest seed rate (125 kg/ha) studied in row except the mean value of speed of germination which was higher for Molgo at a seed rate of 150 kg/ha. Six fungi and one bacterium species were associated with the seed samples studied. The results indicated that good quality seed was produced when both varieties were sown in row at a seed rate of 125 kg/ha. Moreover, variety Digelu was better in terms of seed quality than variety Molgo at all seed rates and both sowing methods.





Bread wheat, seed rate, sowing method, seed quality, seed health

Full Text:



Ashagre Zeleke and Ermias Habte, 2007. Seed Sciences and Technology. Ambo, West shoa, Ethiopia.

Ayaz, S., P. Shah, H.M. Sharif and I. Ali. 1999. Yield, yield components and other important agronomic traits of wheat as affected by seed rate and planting geometry. Sarhad J.Agric., 15(4): 255-262

Ayoub, M., S. Guertin, S. Lussier and D.L. Smith, 1994. Timing and levels of Nitrogen fertility effects on spring wheat. Crop Sci. 34: 748-750.

Bekele, E. and A.L. Karr, 1997. Fusarium head blight in Ethiopian wheat and the identification of species causing the disease. Pest Man. J. Ethio. 1: 29-36.

Bekele, E., 1985. A review of research on diseases of barely, tef and wheat in Ethiopia, pp.79-108. In Abate, T. (eds.) A review of crop protection research in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the first Ethiopian crop protection symposium, 4-7 Feb 1985, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia IAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

FAO., 2005. Production year book Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy, 51,209p

Gore, S. V., R. B. Patil and G. R. Wankhade. 1997. Effect of maturity period and harvesting time on seed quality in soybean (Glycine max. [L.] Merill) cultivars. Seed Res. 25(1): 45-49.

Hailu Beyene, H. Verkuijl, and W. Mwangi, 1998. Farmers’ seed Sources and Management of Bread Wheat in Wolmera Woreda, Ethiopia, Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT and IAR.

Hulluka, M. G. Woldeab, Y. Andrew, R. Desta and A. Badebo, 1991. Wheat pathology research in Ethiopia, pp.173-217. In: Gebremariam, H., Tanner, D.G. and Hulluka,M. (eds.) Wheat research in Ethiopia: A historical perspective. Addis Ababa: IAR/ CIMMYT.

ISTA., 2003. International Rules for Seed Testing Association. Seed Sci. and Tech. 29. Zurich, Switzerland:

Jan, A., I. Hamid and T.J. Muhammad, 2000. Yield and yield component of wheat as influenced by seeding rates and sowing dates.

Pakistan J. of Biol. Sci. 3(2): 323-325.

Kolk, H., 1979. Weed seeds, pp 9-24. In Advances in research and technology of seeds. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Mugonozza, S, G.T., 2001. Seed system in Agriculture, International Center for agriculture research in the dry areas. ICARDA.

Paul, Y.S., B. Hunde, M. Alemu, and M. Ayalew, 1994. Studies on seed-borne mycoflora of wheat in Ethiopia, 305-306. In: Tanner D.G. (ed.) Eighth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. 7-10 June 1993 Kampala, Uganda. CIMMYT, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Perry, D.A., 1980. Seed vigor and field establishment. Adv. Res. Technol. Seeds 5:9-42.

QSAE (Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia). 2000. Ethiopian Standard Wheat seed specification. First edition, ES 414: 2000. SAS (System Analysis Software), 2002. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Ver. 9, SAS Institute Inc., Cray, NC., pp: 1397-1400.

Tekrony, D.M., and D.B. Egli, 1991. Relationship of seed vigor to crop yield. Crop Science, 31:816-822.

Vieira, R.D., Paiva-Aguero, J.A., Perrin, D. and S. Bittencourt,1999. Correlation of electrical conductivity and other vigor tests with field emergence of soybean seedlings. Seed Sci. and Tech, 27: 67-75.

White, J.W., D.G. Tanner and J.D. Corbett, 2001. An agro-climatologically characterization of bread wheat production areas in Ethiopia. NRG-GIS Series 01-01. Mexico, (D.F.:CIMMYT).

Zewdie Bishaw, 2004. Wheat and barley seed system in Ethiopia and Syria. PhD. Dissertation, Wageningen University, Netherlands


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Tesfaye Geleta

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.