A Novel Musculoskeletal Joint Modeling for Orthopaedic Applications
The objective of the work carried out in this research was to develop analytical and computational tools to model and investigate musculoskeletal human joints. It was recognised that the FEA was used by many researchers in modelling human musculoskeletal motion, loading and stresses. However the continuum mechanics played only a minor role in determining the articular joint motion, and its value was questionable. This is firstly due to the computational cost and secondly due to its impracticality for this application. On the other hand, there isn’t any suitable software for precise articular joint motion analysis to deal with the local joint stresses or non standard joints. The main requirement in orthopaedics field is to develop a modeller software (and its associated theories) to model anatomic joint as it is, without any simplification with respect to joint surface morphology and material roperties of surrounding tissues. So that the proposed modeller can be used for evaluating and diagnosing different joint abnormalities but furthermore form the basis for performing implant insertion and analysis of the artificial joints. The work which is presented in this research is a new frame work and has been developed for human anatomic joint analysis which describes the joint in terms of its surface geometry and surrounding musculoskeletal tissues. In achieving such a framework several contributions were made to the 6DOF linear and nonlinear joint modelling, the mathematical definition of joint stiffness, tissue path finding and wrapping and the contact with collision analysis. In 6DOF linear joint modelling, the contribution is the development of joint stiffness and damping matrices. This modelling approach is suitable for the linear range of tissue stiffness and damping properties. This is the first of its kind and it gives a firm analytical basis for investigating joints with surrounding tissue and the cartilage. The 6DOF nonlinear joint modelling is a new scheme which is described for modelling the motion of multi bodies joined by non-linear stiffness and contact elements. The proposed method requires no matrix assembly for the stiffness and damping elements or mass elements. The novelty in the nonlinear modelling, relates to the overall algorithmic approach and handling local non-linearity by procedural means.
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